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By Majid Fakhry

The first accomplished survey of Islamic philosophy from the 7th century to the current, this vintage discusses Islamic notion and its impact at the cultural elements of Muslim lifestyles. Fakhry exhibits how Islamic philosophy has from the earliest instances a particular line of improvement, which supplies it the harmony and continuity which are the marks of the nice highbrow activities of history.

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Yazid (d. 7o4),n the Umayyad prince who became to the learn of alchemy for comfort while his claims to the caliphate have been thwarted. quite a few poems and treatises ascribed to him have come right down to us, however it is most unlikely to figure out their authenticity or the debt in their alleged writer to his Greek or different overseas resources. 12 A extra trustworthy culture attributes to the Jewish medical professional Masarjawaih (Marsarjuis) the Arabic translation of the scientific compendium (Syriac: kunniish) of the Alexandrian Monophysite healthcare professional Aaron, through the reign of the Umayyad caliph Marwan (683-685). thirteen This paintings had bought a substantial acceptance one of the Syriacs, and used to be absolutely one of many earliest clinical translations into Arabic. Ibn al-NadTm, al-Fihrist, pp. 352 f. n Ibid. , p. 511, and Sa'id, Tabaqat al-Umam, pp. forty eight, 6o. 12. For serious dialogue, see Ruska, Arabischen Alchemisten, pp. eight f. thirteen Ibn Juljul, Tabaqat al-Atibba', p. sixty one; Ibn ai-'IbrT, Mukhta~ar, p. 112. ; al-Fihrist, p. forty two. 7; al-QiftT, Tankh a[-ljukama', p. 334 f. 10 6 THE LEGACY OF GREECE, ALEXANDRIA, AND THE ORIENT Of significant value to the historical past of translation used to be the contribution made within the subsequent 5 a long time by means of 'Abdullah b. al-Muqaffa', a Persian convert from Zoroastrianism, who died a violent demise in 757· To him we owe the interpretation into Arabic from Pahlevi of the fables of the Indian sage Bidpai, often called Kalilah wa Dimnah, a literary vintage which maintains even now to be considered as a version of Arabic prose. furthermore, he translated the Persian Khudai-Nameh, or background of Persian Kings, in addition to the Ayin-Nameh, the publication of Mazda, a Biography of Anushirwiin, and various unique literary and moral treatises. l4 even more vital for our reasons, although, is the culture which ascribes to this 'Abdullah (or to his son Muhammad) the interpretation of Aristotle's different types, Hermeneutica, and Analytica Posteriora, in addition to Porphyry's Isagoge, for the 'Abbasid caliph al-Mansnr (754-775). 15 even if Ibn al-Muqaffa' is to be credited with the interpretation of the latter logical treatises, it really is definite that the method of translating clinical and philosophical works didn't start in earnest until eventually the 'Abbasid interval, and specifically until eventually the reign of al-Mansnr, who's stated to were "proficient in jurisprudence and keen on philosophy and astronomy. "16 This caliph, who's portrayed as an austere determine, hired the main eminent physicians, students, and astrologers in his provider. the main illustrious of the physicians have been the 1st representatives of the recognized scientific family members of Bakhtishn', Georgius b. Jibra'Il, head of the clinical tuition of Jundishapnr in Persia, and his disciple 'lsa b. Shahlatha. Of the astrologers, the simplest identified used to be a Persian from an both popular kin of students and astrologers, al-NaubakhtT. 17 As for the students whom al-Mansnr commissioned to translate clinical and different works for him, the main well-known used to be al-BitrTq (Greek: Patrikios), who's credited with various clinical and astrological translations.

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