By Yoseph Bar-Cohen
Uniquely finished and recent, this publication covers terrestrial in addition to extraterrestrial drilling and excavation, combining the know-how of drilling with the cutting-edge in robotics. The authors come from and best score public and company study associations and supply right here real-life examples, difficulties, ideas and case reviews, subsidized by means of colour photos throughout.
the result's vital for oil businesses and all scientists interested in planetary learn with robot probes.
With a foreword by means of Harrison "Jack" Schmitt -- the 1st geologist to drill at the moon.
Read or Download Drilling in Extreme Environments: Penetration and Sampling on Earth and other Planets PDF
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Extra resources for Drilling in Extreme Environments: Penetration and Sampling on Earth and other Planets
6 fixed try out specimen and a cross-section of a triaxial mobile. (Please discover a colour model of this determine at the colour Plates). calls for designated creep checking out systems and triaxial cells which could keep consistent loading for weeks, possibly months (Dusseault and Fordham, 1994). Cylindrical specimens are ready with ﬂat ends, fastened in a phone (Figure 2. 6), and loaded differentially. Deformation information through the years are taken for a sequence of checks at various pressure and temperature stipulations to delineate the creep habit over the diversity of curiosity. 2. 2. 1. five. 2 Dynamic approach within the oil and fuel industries, elastic constants are usually relating to sonic compressional wave pace, shear wave pace, bulk density, and shale content material. There are 4 logs which are often used: gamma ray, sonic, density, and neutron. Density logs provide rock bulk density, while shaliness should be approximately on the topic of the gamma ray reaction. A neutron-density cross-plot is deployed to figure out overall porosity, powerful porosity, and clay quantity (Schlumberger academic providers, 1987). kinds of sonic waves are involved in: a compressional wave that's such a lot delicate to rock density, Youngs modulus, and Poissons ratio, and a shear wave that responds to rock shear modulus. Fluid saturation inﬂuences either sonic wave velocities. The excessive ﬂuid saturation has a tendency to minimize the obvious formation density, stiffness, and energy, and bring up rock bulk compressibility. consequently in a multi-phase ﬂow procedure, introductions of a neutron log and an electric log also are required. The rock houses that may be inferred from logs are shear modulus, Youngs modulus, bulk compressibility, and Poissons ratio. in response to acoustic shuttle velocities (compressional wave speed vc and shear wave pace vs) and bulk density (rb), King (1969) constructed the followings: Youngs modulus : E ¼ rb vs ð3v2c À4v2s Þ v2c Àv2s ð2:24aÞ j45 j 2 ideas of Drilling and Excavation forty six Shear modulus : G ¼ rb v2s Poissons ratio : n ¼ ð2:24bÞ v2c À2v2s 2ðv2c Àv2s Þ Bulk compressibility : Cb ¼ 1:0 À Á rb v2c À forty three v2s ð2:24cÞ ð2:24dÞ as well as vice president and vs used on to make sure rock elastic homes, the easy speed ratio vp/vs could point out even if formations are consolidated or unconsolidated and if fuel or oil is current. Gardner and Harris (1968) confirmed that vp/vs values more than 2. zero have been attribute of water-saturated unconsolidated sands, and values below 2. zero indicated both a well-consolidated rock or the presence of gasoline in unconsolidated sand. Gregory (1976) conﬁrmed this end, and located that the ratio varies from 1. forty two to one. ninety eight for water-saturated rocks and from 1. 30 to one. sixty nine for gassaturated rocks. additionally, the influence of accelerating the gasoline saturation is to diminish vp/vs by means of 3–30% in consolidated rocks. the strain point used to be discovered to lessen the acoustic speed ratio to some degree, however the impact was once no longer consistently constant or predictable over quite a lot of porosity.