By Juan Eduardo Campo
That includes greater than seven hundred A-to-Z entries, this identify offers entry to the options, personalities, old occasions, and associations that assisted in shaping the historical past of Islam and how it really is practiced. It contains an creation that gives readers with an outline of Islam, a chronology, a bibliography, and 89 black-and-white pictures.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Islam (Encyclopedia of World Religions)
Tauris & Co. , 2001). Babism Babism was once a 19th-century Shii messianic circulation dependent in iraq and iran that introduced the immanent go back of the Hidden Imam, a redeemer despatched through God, and thereby challenged the legitimacy of strong non secular and political gurus on the time. consequently, it was once violently suppressed, however it gave beginning to a brand new circulate, which turned the bahai religion. The identify Babism (Babiyya) used to be in keeping with the Arabic be aware bab, “gate” or “door,” indicating a dwelling guy encouraged through God who presents entry to the Hidden Imam. Ali Muhammad (1819–50), a tender service provider from Shiraz, Iran, introduced the move. As a scholar pilgrim on the Shii holy towns of karbala and Najaf in Iraq, he was once drawn to the Shaykhis, a Shii sect that had arisen prior within the century. After returning to Shiraz, he won a following of disciples, and in 1844, he proclaimed that he used to be the bab, supplying as evidence an encouraged interpretation of a bankruptcy within the qUran (Q 12). He despatched his fans all through Iran and Iraq to win converts, one among whom was once Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (1817–92), who could later be often called Baha Ullah, the founding father of the Bahai religion. Ali Muhammad’s transforming into recognition and feedback of the aUthority of the conventional Shii Ulama quickly brought on them to examine him with disfavor, and he was once imprisoned in a distant mountain castle in Azerbaijan in 1847. He wrote many spiritual tracts in his felony mobilephone, the main well-known of which was once the Bayan (exposition), which claimed to be a holy ebook with a brand new common legislation that changed different non secular legislation, together with the sharia. a few fans appeared him as a brand new prophet, and on the finish of his lifestyles, ahead of being carried out for apostasy in 1850, he proclaimed that he used to be the Qaim (one who will arise)—the Hidden Imam himself. Babi leaders, together with an influential lady named Qurrat al-Ayn (d. 1852), determined to damage the movement’s ties with the Islamic faith and lead a rebel opposed to experts in northern Iran. hundreds of thousands of Babis have been said to have died by the hands of presidency troops, specifically after a failed assassination try out opposed to Nasir al-Din Shah (d. 1896), the ruler of Iran, in 1852. lots of the movement’s survivors became to the faith of Baha Ullah (the Bahai religion) in 1863, yet others stayed unswerving to Ali Muhammad’s specified inheritor, Mirza Yahya (or Subh-i Azal, d. 1912), and this staff of Babis turned referred to as Azalis. Azali Babism survived a interval of exile in Iraq and Turkey, and its adherents participated within the Iranian Baghdad eighty three J constitUtional revolUtion of 1906. a truly small variety of Babis live on at the present time within the relevant Asian republic of Uzbekistan. See additionally imam; mahdi; shiism. additional studying: Abbas Amanat, Resurrection and Renewal: The Making of the Babi move in Iran (Ithaca, N. Y. : Cornell collage Press, 1989); Denis MacEoin, Rituals in Babism and Bahaism (London: British educational Press, 1994). al-Badawi, Ahmad (ca. 1200–1276) some of the most well known Sufi saints in Egypt; venerated each year by means of commemorative fairs in response to reverential money owed of his existence, Ahmad al-Badawi (the bedoUin) was once born to a kin in Fez, morocco, that traced its ancestry again to the ahl al-bayt, mUhammad’s family members.