Download E-books Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections PDF

As lengthy as there were maps, cartographers have grappled with the impossibility of portraying the earth in dimensions. to unravel this challenge mapmakers have created hundreds and hundreds of map projections, mathematical equipment for drawing the around earth on a flat floor. but of the loads of latest projections, and the limitless quantity which are theoretically attainable, none is completely accurate.

Flattening the Earth is the 1st designated heritage of map projections on account that 1863. John P. Snyder discusses and illustrates the masses of identified projections produced from 500 B.C. to the current, emphasizing advancements because the Renaissance and shutting with a glance on the number of projections made attainable by means of computers.

The e-book includes one hundred seventy illustrations, together with define maps from unique resources and sleek automated reconstructions. even though the textual content isn't really mathematically dependent, a couple of equations are incorporated to allow the extra technical reader to devise a few projections. Tables summarize the gains of approximately 200 varied projections and record these utilized in nineteenth-and twentieth-century atlases.

"This publication is exclusive and critical: an intensive, well-organized, and insightful background of map projections. Snyder is the world's most popular authority at the topic and an important innovator in his personal right."—Mark Monmonier, writer of How to Lie with Maps and Mapping It Out: Expository Cartography for the arts and Social Sciences.

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Three. a contemporary gnomonic projection of the area onto a dice utilizing the association of Reichard (1803), even if vital mer idians are doubtful. The poles are important on faces. 15° graticule. FIGUHE b Map Projections of the 19th Century released by way of no less than 5 mapmakers among 1673 and 1789, additionally utilizing 4 equatorial and polar gnomonic elements. The Azimuthal Equidistant Projection The azimuthal equidistant projection used to be used, as ahead of, nearly totally in its least difficult element, for both hemispheres or polar areas founded at the North Pole and infrequently at the South Pole. 18 whereas the equatorial point has little sensible price except one wishes distances and instructions from a urban or othe r element at the equator, Debes used it for a map of Africa in 1895, and the indirect point was once used for an 1816 map of a hemisphere headquartered on London (reconstructed with smooth beaches in fig. three. 4). In 1895 Debes extensively utilized it for his map of Europe. 19 An ellipsoidal shape was once, in impression, devised by way of Philippe Hatt (1886), utilizing sequence to calculate rect- F IGU RE three. four. ! he indirect azimuthal equidistant projection of 1 hemisphere situated on London, an overview reconstruction of a map via George Buchanan in Thomson (1816). 10° graticule . one hundred and one 102 bankruptcy 3 angular coordinates for azimuths and distances; this type was once later followed for a few topographic mapping in Greece. The Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Projection Lambert's azimuthal equal-area projection of 1772 (figs. 2. sixteen, 2. 17) was once sluggish to obtain attractiveness. it appears its first use for small-scale atlas maps didn't take place until eventually the Nineties, yet this use integrated all 3 elements- polar, equatorial, and indirect (fig. three. five, a reconstruction of a hemisphere situated on Berlin). 20 The azimuthal equal-area projection was once this type of logical addition to the checklist of long-known azimuthal projections, as soon as the calculus might be utilized to calculations of parts on zones of the sector, that the projection was once it sounds as if independently rederived in determine three. five. The indirect Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection of 1 hemisphere cente pink on Berlin, an summary reconstruction of map sixteen within the Berghaus atlas by means of Justus Pe rthes (1892). 10° graticule. Map Projections of the 19th Century its polar element through Anton-Mario Lorgna (1730- 1796) in 1789 and known as the Lorgna projection in treatises from 1799 to no less than 1882. 2 1 Conic and Sinusoidal Projections Cylindrical and azimuthal projections have been used now and again in atlases for maps of continents, nations, and inte rmediate areas. the easy conic and the Bonne projections (figs. 2. 1, 2. 3), or the sinusoidal projection (fig. l. 39b), that is the equatorial type of the extra common Bonne, have been the a lot pre fe rred varieties. The azimuthal projections have been frequently compatible for local maps, yet they have been extra complex to build until founded on a pole. the easy conic is built utilizing instantly equidistant meridians converging to a typical element that still serves because the middle of the equidistant round arcs representing the parallels of range.

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