Download E-books Freakonomics [Revised and Expanded]: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything PDF

By Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner

Which is extra risky, a gun or a swimming pool? What do schoolteachers and sumo wrestlers have in universal? Why do drug buyers nonetheless stay with their mothers? How a lot do mom and dad really count? How did the legalization of abortion impact the speed of violent crime?

These would possibly not sound like usual questions for an econo-mist to invite. yet Steven D. Levitt isn't really a customary economist. he's a much-heralded pupil who reviews the riddles of daily life—from dishonest and crime to activities and child-rearing—and whose conclusions flip traditional knowledge on its head.

Freakonomics is a groundbreaking collaboration among Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, an award-winning writer and journalist. and they commence with a mountain of information and an easy query. a few of these questions difficulty life-and-death matters; others have an admittedly freakish caliber. hence the hot box of research contained during this e-book: freakonomics.

Through forceful storytelling and wry perception, Levitt and Dubner express that economics is, at root, the learn of incentives—how humans get what they need, or want, specifically whilst people wish or desire a similar factor. In Freakonomics, they discover the hidden aspect of . . . good, every thing. the interior workings of a crack gang. the reality approximately real-estate brokers. The myths of crusade finance. The telltale marks of a dishonest schoolteacher. The secrets and techniques of the Klu Klux Klan.

What unites some of these tales is a trust that the fashionable international, regardless of loads of complexity and downright deceit, isn't really impenetrable, isn't unknowable, and—if the fitting questions are asked—is much more fascinating than we expect. All it takes is a brand new method of having a look.

Freakonomics establishes this unconventional premise: If morality represents how we wish the realm to paintings, then economics represents the way it truly does paintings. it really is precise that readers of this publication might be armed with sufficient riddles and tales to final one thousand cocktail events. yet Freakonomics promises greater than that. it's going to actually redefine the best way we view the trendy world.

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Hannah nine. Megan 19. Courtney 10. Taylor 20. Rebecca É verdade que existe uma boa dose de coincidência. Não esqueçamos, contudo, que esses são os nomes mais comuns entre todos e consideremos o quantity do conjunto de dados. A diferença de uma para outra posição consecutiva nessas listas pode representar várias centenas ou até milhares de crianças. Assim, se Brittany aparece em quinto lugar na lista "baixa renda" e no 18º na lista "classe média", ele é sem dúvida um nome do segmento mais pobre. Outros exemplos são ainda mais incisivos. Cinco nomes de cada categoria sequer aparecem entre os 20 da outra. A seguir, os cinco favoritos das famílias abastadas e das famílias modestas, na ordem de disparidade em relação à outra categoria: Os nomes femininos mais comuns entre os brancos mais abastados 1. Alexandra 2. Lauren three. Katherine four. Madison five. Rachel Os nomes femininos mais comuns entre os brancos mais pobres 1. Amber 2. Heather three. Kayla four. Stephanie five. Alyssa E os masculinos: Os nomes preferidos peles brancos mais abastados 1. Benjamin 2. Samuel three. Jonathan four. Alexander five. Andrew Os nomes preferidos pelos brancos mais pobres 1. Cody 2. Brandon three. Anthony four. Justin five. Robert Considerando-se a relação entre a renda e a escolha dos nomes e o fato de que renda e instrução guardam estreita correlação, não espanta descobrir um vínculo igualmente distinctiveness entre o nível de instrução dos pais e o nome escolhido para seus filhos. Voltando mais uma vez aos nomes mais comuns entre crianças brancas, as escolhas a seguir são as mais freqüentes entre pais mais alto grau de instrução e entre os que têm mais baixo grau de instrução: Nomes mais comuns para meninas brancas de pais com alto grau de instrução 1. Katherine 2. Emma three. Alexandra four. Julia five. Rachel Nomes mais comuns para meninas brancas de pais com baixo grau de instrução 1. Kayla 2. Amber three. Heather four. Brittany five. Brianna Nomes mais comuns para meninos brancos de pais com alto grau de instrução 1. Benjamin 2. Samuel three. Alexander four. John five. William Nomes mais comuns para meninos brancos de pais com baixo grau de instrução 1. Cody 2. Travis three. Brandon four. Justin five. Tyler O efeito é ainda mais gritante quando a amostragem é ampliada para além dos nomes mais comuns. Consultando todo o banco de dados da Califórnia, os seguintes são os nomes que representam os pais brancos menos instruídos. Os 20 nomes para meninas brancas 1 mais representativos de pais de baixa instrução (média de anos de escolaridade da mãe entre parênteses) 1. Angel (11,38) eleven. Jazmine (11,94) 2. Heaven (11,46) 12. Shyanne (11,96) three. Misty (11,61) thirteen. Britany (12,05) four. future (11,66) 14. Mercedes (12,06) five. Brenda (11,71) 15. Tiffanie (12,08) 6. Tabatha (11,81) sixteen. Ashly (12,11) 7. Bobbie (11,87) 17. Tonya (12,13) eight. Brandy (11,89) 18. Crystal (12,15) nine. Destinee (11,91) 19. Brandie (12,16) 10. Cindy (11,92) 20. Brandi (12,17) ____________________________ 1 Com um mínimo de a hundred ocorrências. Se você ou alguém de quem você gosta se chama Cindy ou Brenda e está acima, digamos, de forty anos, pode ter a impressão de que esses nomes não denotavam então uma família de pouca instrução.

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