By Max Weinreich
Max Weinreich’s background of the Yiddish Language is a vintage of Yiddish scholarship and is the one entire scholarly account of the Yiddish language from its starting place to the current. A enormous, definitive paintings, heritage of the Yiddish Language demonstrates the integrity of Yiddish as a language, its evolution from different languages, its detailed houses, and its versatility and diversity in either spoken and written shape. initially released in 1973 in Yiddish by means of the YIVO Institute for Jewish examine and in part translated in 1980, it's now being released in complete in English for the 1st time. as well as his textual content, Weinreich’s copious references and footnotes also are incorporated during this two-volume set.
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Extra info for History of the Yiddish Language, Volume 2
1), khale (w hite bread eaten at the S a b b a th ), khane (a n am e), kale (b rid e), kame (how m u ch ), mamesh (actu al), rabim (p lu ral), ramay (im postor), shabes, and so on the consonant after the under pressure vow el has a dagesh, that's, foundation best friend it w as d ou b led and this m ade the under pressure a ccen t a closed one. I f the vow el is persist with ed by means of tw o consonants, as in almen (w identity ow er), batkhn (jester), gazlen (robber), tarfes (nonkosher food), ma/ter (a learn in g from the P rophets), karke (cem etery lot), shatkhn (m atch m ak er), etc, w e sure ly h a ve closed syllab les; accordingly in either sequence the /a/ rem ained u n ch an ged (A , o f the E arly Sch em e). O n the oth er h and H eb rew patah or hataf patah (7. sixteen. 6) is rendered /o||u/ in Ore (proper n am e, identity en tical w ith A a ro n ), hodes (m yrtle b ra n ch ), kholem (d ream ), khotse (h a lf), lehokhes (spite; there's additionally a p arallel shape w ith /a/), Nokhem (in the B ib le w ith a patah u n der the nun), kadokhes (a gu e; in H eb rew w ith a patah less than the daleth), tokhes (b u ttock), tones (fast) (see b elow ), and p ro b a b ly in a couple of m ore instances. A ll those w ords h ave no dagesh', the vow el represented via the patah is for this reason in an open syllab le, and for this reason this sequence could be integrated within the rule that such an foundation al /a/ (A 2 within the E arly Schem e) becom es lengthened and learned in to d a y ’s Y identity d ish within the d iap hon em e /o||u/. B ut there are deviations from this r u le ; for examination p le, nakhes (pleasure) turns out in its ph onem ic con d ition in g to be identity en tica l w ith kadokhes, b u t consequently a under pressure syllab le rem ained /a/ in all dialects. O n the con trary, omed (pulpit) has within the b ib lical M asora a palah u n der the ayin (not basically within the build, b u t additionally within the simple shape ) and the mem has a dagesh', however the patah o f the 1st syllab le w h ich , acco rd in g to the milel method is under pressure, is learned as /o||u/. T h e substantial rov (rab b i), w right here the syllab le results in a consonant, is a ctu a lly /rav/ in w estern Y identification d is h ,, in a cco rd an ce w ith the patah in H e b rew : japanese Y identification d ish has /o||u/. Som e fluctuations o ccu r in japanese Y identity d ish itself. Lehakhes (and additionally tsu lehakhes, tsukhakhisnik) happens either w ith /a/ and w ith /o||u/ within the under pressure syllab le. T h e regu lar w ord for ‘fast’ is /tones||tunes/, yet there's additionally a d ou b allow, identification en tical w ith the H ebrew model /tanes-ester/. T h e J e w nam ed Ore (w ith /o||u/) is termed as much as the T o r a h Reb Arn /arn/, and arn, arele are used as p rop er nam es on all events. 7. sixteen . four T h e kamez (to be detailed, one should still say kamez gadol; the kamez katan is govern ed via oth er ideas, and it alw ays rem ains /o/; 7. 12 , 7. 15 . five) is ge n e ra lly rendered in Y identification d ish as /o||u/ (A three within the E arly S ch em e): 39» T h e Linguistic D eterm inants boke (m aster), khokhem (sage), mole (fu ll), /•ore/j (lord), etc; there are hundreds of thousands o f instances, and in a ll the syllab le results in a vow el.