By David Flusser
David Flusser was once a really prolific student of the lifeless Sea Scrolls, and his contributions to Scrolls study, apocalypticism, and apocalyptic literature are inestimable. Now with this English translation of lots of his essays, Flusser's insights can be found to a much wider viewers than ever ahead of. the following Flusser examines the impression of apocalypticism on a variety of Jewish sects. He states that the lessons of Jesus, whereas reflecting at first the perspectives of the sages, also are stimulated through Jewish apocalypticism. analyzing the Essenes, their impression on Hebrew language, the break up of sects, and masses extra, Flusser's accrued essays supply a massive resource of research for any useless Sea Scrolls pupil.
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Additional resources for Judaism of the Second Temple Period: Volume 1, Qumran and Apocalypticism
149-151. eleven. H. S. Horowitz, Sifre Numbers ( Leipzig, 1917; reprint Jerusalem, 1992), 120-121. 12. Rabbi Aqiva isn't stated via identify, yet this is often the continuation of his prior assertion. thirteen. See D. Flusser, "Die Sunde gegen den heiligen Geist," in E. L. Ehrlich (ed. ) , "Wie gus sind Deine Zelte Jaakow . . . ," Festschrift fur R. Mayer (Gerlingen, 1986) , 139-149, and particularly p. 141. See additionally Sifre Deuteronomy §328 ( Hammer version, p. 339 ) : "The Holy One, blessed be He, will forgive whatever, yet desecration of His identify he'll requite immediately:' it's worthy noting that one of the Noahide commandments, or even previous, are prohibitions "that are written within the Torah, and have been they no longer written - it should were justified to put in writing them" (Sifra advert Leviticus 18:4, and in addition t. Yoma 67b) - together with blaspheming God's identify. seventy four We flip now to the punishment of the second one crew of sinners: they "will be locked in hell and they'll be judged in it for all eternity, eternally extra. " right here greater than the opposite instances we should always think that people who find themselves condemned to this boundless punishment don't have any desire of atonement less than any conditions; their sin is so serious that they've misplaced all wish. This interpre tation reveals help in Jesus' reaction to people who accused him of exorcis ing with the aid of Beelzebul, the grasp of the demons. He says: "Whoever speaks a notice opposed to the Son of guy could be forgiven, yet whoever speaks opposed to the Holy Spirit usually are not forgiven, both during this Ilge or within the age to return" (Matt. 12:32 ) . 1 four an identical culture is already attested in 1 Enoch, 1 five the place one of many angels of Holiness is charged with the spirits of these useless who "sin opposed to the spirit" (20. 6) . The essence in their crime is defined a bit afterward: "This accursed valley (that is, hell) is for these accursed without end; right here will assemble jointly all these accursed ones, those that converse with their mouth unbecoming phrases opposed to the Lord and utter challenging phrases relating his glory. the following shall they be amassed jointly, and the following can be their judg ment, within the final days" ( 27. 2-3) . in accordance with 1 Enoch, then, those that communicate opposed to the Lord and his glory haven't atonement during this international or within the subsequent, yet really they're doomed to hell for all eternity, forevermore. 1 6 Comparative research of the second one form of sinners in Seder 'Olam and t. Sanhedrin thirteen. five, at the one hand, and the parallel traditions within the ebook of Enoch and the recent testomony, may perhaps aspect us towards the unique kernel con cerning these damned to hell for all eternity. We observed that in response to Enoch and Jesus' announcing, those that spoke sick of the Lord and cursed his Glory, aren't forgiven during this international nor the subsequent. And certainly, we discover this very ac cusation in our Tosefta culture: the punishment for sinners who "lifted their palms opposed to the zevul is an eternity in Hell. " 1 7 the easiest interpretation of this assertion is located within the Palestinian Talmud Sanhedrin 23C: "Just as one that blasphemes is hanged simply because he lifted his palms opposed to a center be14.