At a time whilst hostilities and violence within the center East and Persian Gulf regularly threaten the area with battle, someone looking to comprehend the present state of affairs needs to familiarize yourself with the interrelationships of the Jewish and Arab cultures. This booklet makes a speciality of the forces, occasions, and personalities that during the last one hundred fifty years have formed the Jewish groups of the Arab global, altering the family members among Jews and Arabs extra substantially than whatever because the upward push of Islam approximately 1400 years in the past. Norman A. Stillman is the Schusterman/Josey Professor of Judaic background on the collage of Oklahoma and is an the world over well-known authority at the historical past and tradition of the Islamic global and on Sephardic and Oriental Jewry.
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Extra resources for The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times
Stillman. p. cm. contains bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 0–8276–0370–3 1. Jews—Arab countries—History–19th century—Sources. 2. Jews—Arab countries—History–20th century—Sources. three. Zionism—Arab countries—History—Sources. four. Antisemitism—Arab countries—History—Sources. five. Arab countries—Ethnic relations—Sources. 6. Jewish–Arab relations—Sources. I. identify. DS135. A68S75 1991 305. 8´92´40174927—dc20 90-5341 CIP Designed by means of Adrianne Onderdonk Dudden Endpaper maps by way of Larry Ward the writer needs to thank the next publishers and/or authors for permission to cite from the resources indexed: by means of permission of the college of Texas Press and Professor Renzo de Felice, for Jews in an Arab Land: Libya, 1835–1970, by way of Renzo de Felice, translated by way of Judith Roumani © 1985 ; Mr. Naim Kattan for Farewell Babylon, through Naim Kattan ©, translated by way of Sheila Fischrnan; Eyre Methuen Ltd. for Baghdad: the town of Peace, through Richard Coke (Thorton Butterworth Publishers, 1927); Simon & Schuster for at the back of the Silken Curtain: a private Account of Anglo-American international relations in Palestine and the center East, by means of Bartley C. Crum © 1947. New ISBN 1-59045-195-3 pupil PDF No a part of this booklet might be reproduced or transmitted in any shape or in any way, digital or mechanical, together with photocopy, recording, or any info garage retrieval procedure, apart from short passages in reference to a serious assessment, with out permission in writing from the writer: Varda Books, 9001 Keating road, Skokie, Illinois, united states ready as an book by means of Varda photos, Inc. To my liked mom and dad MELVIN STILLMAN of blessed reminiscence and JOYCE GIDDEN STILLMAN who not just gave me lifestyles, yet taught me how you can stay it Preface § vi CONTENTS xvii record OF ILLUSTRATIONS PREFACE observe ON type half ONE 1 xxi xxvii background THE 19th CENTURY AND three THE influence OF THE WEST 2 SOCIAL adjustments three 27 among NATIONALISM AND COLONIALISM within the AFTERMATH OF the 1st international warfare four ZIONISM AND THE JEWS OF ARAB LANDS North Africa seventy one The Levant eighty DARKENING SHADOWS: 1929 TO 1939 The Palestine factor ninety four The Penetration of Anti-Semitism 104 The German and Italian impression one zero five Preface sixty five sixty seven Egypt five forty seven § vii ninety three Jewish Responses to Anti-Semitism in Europe and at domestic 108 at the Eve of global conflict II 111 6 international conflict AND ITS effect 113 Egypt and the Levant States Iraq 116 121 North Africa modifications 7 113 136 THE final bankruptcy 141 emerging Tensions within the Postwar period 141 The Irrevocable break up 149 The Mass Exodus starts off a hundred and fifty five the second one level of the Exodus 168 EPILOGUE 177 half 1 resources THE 19th CENTURY AND THE impression OF THE WEST 183 The cAhd al-Aman 183 a non secular new release hole in Algiers 186 A Pastoral Letter from the manager Rabbi of France to the Jews of Algeria Urging Reforms 187 Statutes of the Jewish neighborhood in Alexandria, Egypt a hundred ninety The Jewish neighborhood of Sidon on the flip of the Century 2 SOCIAL ameliorations 199 A Letter from the Alliance Israélite Universelle to Rabbi Raphael Abensur of Fez inquiring for His assist in struggling with baby Marriage 199 a eu Jew attempts to Rescue a lady from a baby Marriage in Morocco 201 § viii 197 The Jewish neighborhood of Suez Requests suggestions for Yemenite Refugees 202 203 A document on Jewish Emigration from Tetouan A Judeo-Arabic record at the Iraqi Jewish Colony in China 207 a trip to the Jewish Cave Dwellers of Libya extra one of the Cave Dwellers 206 212 the executive Rabbi of Cairo’s Responsum on Prostitutes’ presents to the Synagogue 220 A Syrian Rabbi Preaches opposed to the hot Morality 222 The Rabbis of Aleppo Pronounce a Ban of Anathema upon Sabbath Desecrators 223 A Twentieth-Century Yemenite model of the Pact of cUmar 225 Reactions in Mosul to the Constitutional Reform of the younger Turks 227 A Jewish Egyptian Patriot demands Deemphasizing faith in His Country’s Public existence for the Sake of nationwide harmony 228 The Jews of Beirut whinge approximately Their New leader Rabbi to the Hakham Bashi of the Ottoman Empire 231 the executive Rabbi of Beirut Defends Himself c the conventional Jewish colleges of San a the fashionable Jewish university in Sanca 235 236 238 An English tourist and heart East professional Visits the Alliance Israélite college in Mosul 240 the executive Rabbi of Alexandria Complains in regards to the therapy of His Son in an Alliance university 241 A Baghdadi Rabbi Decries the Decline of conventional Morals 243 A Wave of Conversions between Jewish adolescence at Christian faculties in Egypt Shocks the group 245 A switched over adolescence Returns to Judaism 248 A Letter from One Egyptian “Jew for Jesus” to a different 249 The Gallicization of a Tunisian Jewish Boy within the Years simply ahead of global struggle I 250 § ix 3 among NATIONALISM AND COLONIALISM within the AFTERMATH OF the 1st global battle 253 A Tunisian Jew’s fight to Serve His followed nation in international conflict I 253 Turkish Exactions Weigh seriously upon Baghdadi Jews in the course of global battle I 254 The Jews of Baghdad Petition for British Citizenship on the finish of global warfare I 256 259 An Iraqi Nationalist entice Non-Muslims An Excerpt from a Speech Given by means of King Faysal to the Jewish Communal Leaders of Baghdad 260 261 Observations at the advertisement lifetime of Baghdad 263 The Jewish neighborhood of Damascus in 1919 Contacts among Zionists and Arab Nationalists in Damascus 272 A Directive Banning Hebrew because the Language of guide in Syrian Jewish colleges 274 275 The Vicissitudes of Jewish formative years golf equipment in Damascus A Syrian Rabbi Criticizes “the New Intellectuals” 278 A Syrian Journalist Is shocked That Jewish scholars Excel in Arabic assessments 280 281 conversing Judeo-Arabic in combined corporation The Jewish colleges of Baghdad in 1929 284 The Theosophist Controversy one of the Jews of Basra 288 An Alliance Official’s stopover at to the Jewish group of Damascus in 1929 291 A Plea for aid from the Jews of Hodeida to Their Coreligionists in London 294 An Arab Journalist’s Impressions of the Jewish sector of Sanca Articles facing Moroccan Jews within the Statute of the foreign quarter of Tangier three hundred A Gallicized Moroccan Jew Calls upon His Coreligionists to spot completely with France 302 A Moroccan Jewish instructor at the want for Arabic within the Alliance colleges in Morocco 303 § x 297 4 ZIONISM AND THE JEWS OF ARAB LANDS 305 305 A Letter to Theodor Herzl from Egypt’s First Zionist Society Mass Demonstrations through Egyptian Jews in social gathering of the Balfour assertion 307 a choice to Alexandrian Jewry to rejoice the San Remo popularity of the Balfour statement and to give a contribution to the Zionist company 309 311 the 1st Fund elevating Efforts via Moroccan Zionists 312 A Letter to Theodor Henl from the Zionists of Safi, Morocco A report back to the Colonial professionals on Emigration to Palestine and on Zionism in Morocco by means of a French-Appointed Jewish legit 314 An Alliance document on a Wave of cAliya from Fez to Palestine with feedback on the best way to Stem the Tide 316 French and Jewish officers Oppose the Formation of a Zionist Society in Morocco 318 A Tunisian United Jewish charm 319 The Zionist move in Tunis within the overdue Nineteen Twenties 322 The Circolo Sion Appeals for Public help throughout the Communal Elections in Tripoli 324 Abraham Elmaleh Propagandizes for Zionism and Sephardi Revival one of the Jews of Beirut 325 A Public announcement by means of the Damascene Jewish adolescence organization Disavowing Zionism and Pledging Loyalty to the Arab reason 328 A Sephardi chief in Aleppo Complains That the Jewish service provider Is Ignoring Would-be cOlim from His urban 329 An Iraqi Jewish amazing Expresses His Reservations on Zionism 331 The Iraqi Zionist Federation studies on Its actions for 1923 to 1925 334 The founding father of an Iraqi Jewish Newspaper Requests the realm Zionist association to intrude with the British executive on Behalf of His ebook 337 Iraqi Zionists whinge approximately Their loss of illustration within the Jewish corporation and of Ashkenazi Bias 340 A document at the Ban upon Zionist actions in Iraq 342 An Arab Journalist Accuses Iraqi Jews of Zionist Intrigues § xi 345 A Moroccan Arab Journalist assaults Zionist actions in His nation 348 Jewish Boy Scouts in Tangier reason a Stir between Arab Nationalists 350 351 An Arabic variation of “The Protocols” in Beirut The Jews of Beirut Petition the experts for a Ban at the Sale of “The Protocols” 352 Adeni Jews and Zionism five DARKENING SHADOWS: 353 1929 TO 1939 357 The kingdom of Syrian Jewry within the speedy Aftermath of the Western Wall Disturbances 357 An Accusation of Mosque Desecration ends up in Mob Violence opposed to the Jews of Aden 360 An professional British assertion at the Anti-Jewish Riots in Aden 362 A Gallicized Algerian Muslim displays upon the Constantine Pogrom of 1934 363 An review of Arab Nationalist emotions towards the Jews in North Africa 365 the arriving of Refugee Jewish medical professionals in Syria Stirs competition 367 The Alliance in Baghdad Aids the 1st Jewish Refugees from Germany in Its Midst and attempts to Rally Communal motion 368 The Iraqi executive Initiates numerous Anti-Jewish Measures 369 The Maronite Patriarch matters a Pastoral Letter Deploring Nazi Persecution of the Jews 370 A place Paper by means of Lebanese and Syrian Jewish Leaders on the Time of the French-Arab Negotiations in Paris for Termination of the Mandates 371 The Jewish group of Beirut gets the Maronite Patriarch 376 the 10 Commandments of the Egyptian Jewish Boycott of Axis items 378 Anti-Jewish Demonstrations in Egypt at the Prophet’s Birthday 379 An Anti-British and Anti-Zionist Tract allotted in Tunisia 381 Repercussions from the Arab normal Strike in Palestine upon Damascene Jewry 383 An Anti-Jewish Pamphlet allotted by means of Arab Militants in Cairo § xii 385 The American Chargé D’Affaires in Baghdad stories at the Repercussions of the Palestinian Arab normal Strike for Iraqi Jews 386 A Public announcement by way of the pinnacle of Iraqi Jewry Disassociating Himself and His neighborhood from Zionism on the Time of the Arab basic Strike in Palestine 389 A Bomb within the Jewish region of Sidon and a Sabotage try out opposed to Jewish estate 390 Sober options concerning the reasons of the Anti-Jewish Incidents in Sidon and concerning the Uncertainty of the longer term 392 An Egyptian Jewish Newspaper reviews on a emerging Wave of Anti-Semitic Agitation in Egypt 393 A Plea to the French professionals for defense within the Wake of Anti-Jewish Incidents in Beirut 396 An Algerian Muslim Warns That occasions in Palestine Threaten Muslim-Jewish relatives in Algeria 397 Libya’s Italian Fascist Newspaper Explains a central authority Ordinance Banning Shopkeepers from final at the Sabbath 398 Tripolitanian Jews Are Publicly Whipped for Defying the Government’s Ban opposed to Saturday store last 399 I An Egyptian Jewish Press Account 399 II An Italian Fascist Press Account 401 A Letter from the Presidents of the Jewish groups of Cairo and Alexandria to the Egyptian major Minister 402 6 international battle II AND ITS impression 405 The record of the Iraqi fee of Inquiry at the Farhud 405 A British army Intelligence file on Jewish makes an attempt to depart Iraq for Palestine and somewhere else after the Farhud 418 The Governor of Libya Advises Mussolini to change the appliance of Italy’s Anti-Jewish legislation in Libya 419 An Italian document at the Jewish impact at the Libyan economic climate and the necessity to Take motion opposed to It 421 A German Consular Official’s Observations on Fascist Anti-Jewish laws in Libya 423 Abrogation of the Crémieux Decree via the Vichy Regime § xiii 426 The Leaders of Algerian Jewry Protest the Abrogation of the Crémieux Decree and claim Their endured Loyalty to France 427 The Governor basic Informs the manager Rabbi of Algiers of a Numerus Clausus for Jewish kids in Public fundamental colleges 430 the yankee Consul in Algiers Advises opposed to U.